Winter Greens

Winter is here! It is still a great time to get outside to enjoy nature. Here are some evergreen plants you can see in State Parks while hiking, snowshoeing or cross-country skiing this season. These plants are all native to NY state. Though popular for decorating, you should only pick them from your own lands or look for decorating greens at your local nursery or Christmas tree farm. Please don’t pick the plants in state parks or on other public lands so that others may enjoy seeing them in the wilds. A number of the plants below are designated as exploitably vulnerable (http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7135.html) to prevent their over harvesting.

American holly (Ilex opaca) is most common in our Long Island parks and also planted in many landscapes. Its red berries provide good food for wintering birds and the sharp spines on the leaves protect the leaves from being eaten by deer or rabbits.

Ilex opaca
This photo of holly was taken in the dunes of Long Island – that is sand, not snow! Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.

Several plants go by the common name of Wintergreen. This one is Gaultheria procumbens. Its thick waxy leaves stay green all winter and also contain wintergreen oil, like the smell of Canada mints or gum.

2-wintergreen-by-jubilee_fiest
Wintergreen.  Photo by Jubilee Fiest.

Clubmosses (lycopods) look like little small Christmas trees or candles on the forest floor. Some types grow along long runners that were popular for garlands. Today, this plant is on the protected list to prevent over harvesting.

You may have read about this one in our November blog. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) that is found in boggy places in parks. And the less common look-alike below is snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula) – oddly more closely related to the Wintergreen above than the cranberry plant. Look hard and you can see the white berry.

5-cranberry_gregedingernynhp
Cranberry. Photo by Greg Edinger, NYNHP
6-snowberry-julielundgrennynhp
Snowberry. Photo by J. Lundgren

A few of our ferns are wintergreen too like the common polypody or rock-cap fern (Polypodium virginianum). As its name suggests, it grows on rocks, often in large patches.

7-polypodium-nynhp
Rock-cap fern.  Photo by NYNHP

Here one that is easy to learn – the Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Each leaflet looks like a little boot or stocking!

And what do Santa’s reindeer eat? Reindeer moss of course! This is actually not a moss, but a large group of gray-green lichens that are common in our forests and mountain tops and even more abundant in the tundra of Canada and northern countries where caribou and reindeer live. Shown here with wintergreen and clubmoss.

EPSON DSC picture
Reindeer moss. Photo by Steven Young, NYNYP

Do you know your evergreen trees? What has long soft needles in clusters of 5? Or sharp needles with a strong odor? Or flat needles that are soft to the touch? All of these trees provide important shelter and food for wildlife during the winter and add to the beauty of the winter landscape.

11white_pine_jubileefeist
This one is the white pine (Pinus strobus) with its long soft needles. Photo by Jubilee Feist
12-spruce-julielundgren-nynhp
Spruce (Picea sp.) has short, very sharp needles. Photo by J. Lundgren
13-hemlock-winter-julie-lundgrennynhp
Hemlock (Tsuga candensis) has short and soft flat needles, you can see the difference in this and the stiff spruce branches above. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and yew (Taxus) also have flat needles but both lack the white stripe on the underside of the hemlock leaf. Photo by J. Lundgren
14-hemlocks-in-snow-julielundgrennynhp
An inviting path through a grove of hemlocks. Photo by J. Lundgren

So get out and enjoy the greens of winter!

Post by Julie Lundgren, NY Natural Heritage Program

2 thoughts on “Winter Greens”

  1. Look, too, for Pipsissewa and Striped Wintergreen under pines, and Trailing Arbutus on sandy banks. We even have three native orchids with evergreen leaves: Goodyera tesselata, Goodyera pubescens, and Goodyera repens, although you might have to brush the snow away to find them. And nearly all our mosses and liverworts stay green all winter.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s