This year, the New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program celebrates its 20th anniversary. Since 1997, the BCA Program has been promoting the conservation of birds and their habitats on designated state-owned lands and waters in New York State. There is no other program like it in the United States. The BCA Program is modeled after Audubon’s Important Bird Area (IBA) Program but is backed by legislation. Sites are considered for BCA designation if they meet criteria relating to high concentrations of birds, bird diversity, or the presence of at-risk species. Recognizing a site as a BCA brings awareness to the needs of birds on state-owned lands and encourages management that benefits the bird populations. While the BCA Program focuses on birds, the program also benefits other species that share the same habitats.
Audubon has partnered with the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (State Parks) on the BCA Program since its beginning, and has held up the BCA Program as a model for other states to protect birds. This fall, Audubon was delighted to join State Parks in celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the program, in conjunction with the designation of the 60th BCA in Ganondagan State Park.
In recent years, Audubon’s partnership with State Parks has expanded to include Audubon in the Parks initiative, which is a partnership with Audubon New York, State Parks and its Regional Commissions, Audubon Chapters, and friends groups to advance bird conservation in State Parks, specifically focusing on BCAs and IBAs. Through Audubon in the Parks, Audubon assists with the implementation of BCA management recommendations, conducts bird monitoring, and helps with other strategies and research activities that benefit priority birds and habitats. In addition, Audubon advocates for funds to ensure that habitats are preserved and managed in a way that benefits priority birds and further connect people to these unique places.
Through Audubon in the Parks, Audubon has been active in more than 50 State Parks across the state, including 20 BCAs. This successful initiative continues to grow through projects like the one recently completed at Schodack Island State Park, which has been designated as a BCA because of nesting Cerulean Warblers and wintering Bald Eagles. Led by the Audubon Society of the Capital Region, this BCA project included building bird blinds for visitors to view birds without disturbing them and removing invasive species within the park. The chapter continues to foster a community connection to the park and importance of this BCA by hosting eagle walks and other events such as the recent Schodack Island Raptor Fest.
Audubon congratulates New York State on the BCA program and looks forward to continuing the strong partnership with State Parks to make New York a better place for birds and people.
When autumn arrives, what comes to your mind first? Many say the changing foliage or enjoying a hike along a trail, savoring those crisp days given to us during this time of year.
However, here in the Niagara Region of New York, autumn holds an annual event that is well-worth a journey down into the Niagara Gorge! It is the time of year when in addition to viewing the raging rapids, you can also see the river at low water. This is all made possible because of additional water being diverted for the New York Power Authority and the Ontario Power Company to produce hydroelectricity.
Regulated under The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 (revised in 1950), the US and Canada are allowed to divert water for the purpose of power generation as long as they agree to preserve the scenic beauty of the Falls and the Niagara River. Thus, the erosion rate of the falls is reduced significantly. The cliff face is more stable and it makes it easier to maintain the viewing areas at Niagara Falls State Park.
Summer Flow occurs from April 1 until October 31, with 50% of the river water diverted above the Falls during the day and 75% diverted during evening hours to produce electricity.
Winter Flow occurs from November 1-March 31, when 75% of the water above the Falls is diverted, thus we get to see only a quarter of the water flow over the falls.
This offers opportunities to explore part of the exposed Whirlpool Sandstone rock layer in the Niagara Gorge during the winter flow. The Whirlpool Sandstone layer is underwater during the summer flow.
There are guided hikes available with the Niagara Region Park Programs Office in November; in 2017 they are Saturday, November 11 & Saturday, November 18. The hike will take you beyond the Whirlpool to the site of the rapids viewing area. At one time, the exposed rocks were a scenic stop for the Great Gorge Route, an electric trolley line that ran from 1895-1935, running from Niagara Falls to Lewiston, NY. The route also journeyed over to Canada (1899-1932) on what was known as the Niagara Belt Line.
At this trolley stop, passengers were able to walk down the stairs to better view the incredible “giant wave” as seen in the historic postcard below.
Post by Carol Rogers, State Parks.
Featured image: Niagara River Backdrift, accessed from Wikicommons
Happy Halloween! Children all over are dressing up in their costumes to head out trick-or-treating. But these children, disguised as spooky vampires or Wonder Woman, aren’t the only ones with a few tricks up their sleeve. Animals can use disguises too! Some animals have actually developed physical or behavioral characteristics that copy other species or objects, a strategy called mimicry. Using appearances, sounds, smells, or behaviors, mimicry provides an animal with some advantage, usually protection from predators. But unlike kids throwing on a costume for a day, the mimic’s display isn’t a conscious choice by the animal; rather it is the product of millions of years of natural selection. Because the mimicry helps the animal survive in some way, those characteristics are more likely to be passed on to the next generation.
There are many types of mimicry. Batesian mimicry, named after the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates, is one of the most common forms and occurs when a tasty or vulnerable creature mimics an unsavory or dangerous creature. Below are several examples of Batesian mimicry that can be found right in your backyard!
Hoverflies are excellent mimics, warding off predators with their coloration. These small flies are harmless, but with their black and yellow stripes they look like stinging bees and wasps. They can often be seen hovering at flowers, feeding on nectar and pollen. Can you tell which two photos are of hoverflies and which two are not?
Hoverfly, photo from Wikimedia CCO
Honeybee, photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.
Hoverfly, photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.
Paper wasp, photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.
Here’s another example of mimicry through colors and patterns. “Eyespots” may mimic the eyes of a larger animal and serve to scare away potential predators, especially young birds. Eyespots can frequently be found on the wings of butterflies and moths, as well as on caterpillars.
Polyphemus Moth, photo by Kelsey Ruffino, State Parks.
Common Buckeye Butterfly, photo by Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
These two species of caterpillars have clear eyespots near the front of their bodies. These body markings could help the caterpillar mimic the look of a snake or other more threatening predator. The actual eyes are located on the head, which is the smaller bump at the base of the large pseudo-head.
Spicebush Swallowtail Caterpillar, photo by Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Caterpillar, photo by Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org
Another deception – the eastern tiger swallowtail caterpillar mimics the appearance of bird poop in its early stages, which reduces the likelihood of getting eaten by birds or other insects.
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Caterpillar – Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
A second type of mimicry is called Müllerian mimicry, named after the German naturalist Fritz Müller, in which several species that are equally harmful or unsavory have evolved with shared characteristics. Predators quickly learn to avoid that characteristic, which then benefits all the mimicking species. One example of this is the monarch and viceroy butterfly. Scientists have determined that birds tend to dislike the taste of both butterflies. By sharing a similar color and pattern, these butterflies are advertising that they are not tasty and birds are more likely to avoid both species.
Viceroys and monarchs can be difficult to tell apart. If you look at the lower wing of the butterfly, viceroys have a bold black line that monarchs do not have. Also, viceroys are usually smaller than monarchs.
Viceroy Butterfly, photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org
Monarch Butterfly, photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org
Mimicry is not only used by animals, but plants and fungi use it as a survival strategy too. There are orchids that have evolved to resemble female insects, so that male insects will be attracted to the fake mate and will collect and/or deposit pollen when they land on the flower. There are fungi that mimic the smell of rotting meat to attract insects, which then help spread the fungi’s spores. There are plants that very precisely mimic the chemical signals released by insects during mating season, which attracts more potential pollinators to the plant.
Mimicry plays a very important role in the survival of many species. It is a complex system involving plants and animals, predators and prey alike, each trying to deceive for safety, food, or propagation. So this Halloween, when kids are in full disguise, think about all the plants and animals that have precisely developed costumes too. If some prey can’t come up with a good trick, the predator may be in for a treat!
Post by Kelsey Ruffino, Student Conservation Association and State Parks
Featured image: praying mantis by Lilly Schelling, State Parks
Fall is an especially good time to find all kinds of nuts on the forest floor, in a picnic area in the park, or maybe even in your neighborhood or back yard. Let’s take a look and learn how to identify some of these wild nuts.
In technical botanical terms, all of these “nuts” are called the “fruit”. The fruit is defined as the seed and the package which holds the seed. So, for example, the acorn is the “fruit” of an oak tree, and inside is the nut which is a type of seed. If you use plant keys you will see those terms, but for general use, it is ok to call them all nuts!
Acorns are some of the most common types of nuts. Do you know what tree they come from? Acorns come from oak trees. Oaks are found far and wide across New York State and the United States so you should be able to find oak trees and acorns in a park near you. Acorns come in different shapes and sizes, depending on the type of oak they are from. They are a favorite food of squirrels, turkeys, deer, and other animals.
Red oak acorns are big (over 1 inch long) and roundish like a fat egg. They have very flat caps that cover only a small part of the acorn. The northern red oak (Quercus rubra) is the most common oak species in NY and its state parks.
Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) acorns are less than 1 inch long and have shiny caps with tight scales. Scarlet oaks are common in Eastern NY, usually found on sandy or rocky soils. If you look closely at this picture, you can see a small round hole in the acorn: a sign that it was eaten by some type of insect.
The large size and heavy fringe of this acorn cap tell us that these are from bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), one of our less common oak species in NY. Sometimes you will only the acorns caps, as the nuts have been carried away by squirrels.
What nut looks like a green tennis ball? That would be the black walnut (Juglans nigra), from the tree of the same name. They have a really strong smell and can stain your clothes, so handle with care. Over time they turn brown and dry out. Black walnuts can be eaten but it takes a lot of work to dry and husk them. They also make a beautiful natural dye.
The butternut tree (Juglans cinerea) is a closely related to black walnut and has very similar nuts. They start out bright green like the black walnut, but are shaped more like footballs rather than the tennis balls shape of black walnuts.
By early fall, the butternuts nuts have dried up and lost their fuzzy husk and they look very much like the English walnuts you buy in the store. This butternut was found empty. Both black walnuts and butternuts are edible but it can be tough to find one that hasn’t already been snacked on by a squirrel!
Hickories are another very important tree for wildlife including turkey, deer, chipmunk, squirrel, mice and others. Of the 20 hickory species found in North America, five species are native to New York State. A good key to identifying these is found here.
Pignut (Carya glabra), Mockernut (Carya tomentosa) and Bitternut (Carya cordiformis) hickory have thin husks like this. There are two types of nuts: ones that keep their husk on as they mature or ripen (“indehiscent”) and those with husks that split completely and fall off the nut by the end of fall (“dehiscent”). One has to look at the leaves and/or buds to properly identify these species. As its name suggests, Bitternut is one that is not palatable to either wildlife or people.
Wow – what nuts are these? These are the thick husks of the Shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), a tree that is rare in NY. The husks range from 1.5 inches to nearly 3 inches long, and the nuts inside would be pointed at both ends. That’s one tough nut to crack! These husks were empty, but you can see how the cavity tapers to a point at each end. The more common Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) is very similar, but the nuts are rounded at the base and the husks do not exceed 2 inches long. Nuts from both of these trees are sweet and edible.
If you find one of these, consider yourself very lucky! This is the fruit and nut of the American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata). Although a blight killed off the large trees, some sprouts persisted and some trees do get large enough to produce nuts like this. These spikes are so sharp you can’t even pick them up with your bare hands, which keeps animals from eating the nut inside. Eventually the husks open up to release the nut in hopes that a new tree will grow.
Quiz Time – What Nuts are These?
It’s easy to overlook them, but look around the base of the trees and sometimes you will find piles of nuts – empty or maybe whole. All kinds of nuts are a very important food source for wildlife. The ones shown above (mixed in with the leaves) are mostly the empty shells or husks of hickory nuts that were eaten by animals.
Want to learn more about nuts and tree fruits of all kinds? Below are some good books and websites to get you started.
GoBotany – an online tool for identifying plants in New England but includes most tree species found in NY state too.
What’s your idea of adventure? Is it something exotic like scuba diving, mountain climbing or bungee jumping? Perhaps something quieter, such as camping under the stars or exploring a stream in search for brook trout? Adventures can be big or small, but they all push us out of our comfort zones as we learn about new activities and exciting areas of our world.
Allegany State Park, known as the “Wilderness Playground of Western New York” is one such place where adventure abounds. With 65,000 acres of pristine forests, miles of trails, serene lakes and natural beauty everywhere, it’s hard not to find an activity to enjoy.
The Outdoor Adventure Series hosted by the Environmental Education and Recreation Department offers informative, hands-on, free clinics for all those want to be adventurous souls. Each program is led by an outdoor enthusiast who shares their knowledge and passion of their favorite activity. They bring their gear, suggest what you may need to get started and then let you try your hand at fly fishing, paddle boarding or geocaching.
Fishing is a great family activity, photo by State Parks
Standup paddle boarding, photo by State Parks
Allegany State Park hosts several unique events throughout the year, such as Geobash, one of the biggest geocaching events around; Raccoon Rally, a bike festival featuring both road and mountain bike races and the Art Roscoe Loppet cross country ski race. The Adventure series promotes these events by hosting a program about the sport or activity in the same month as the event to give people the chance to try a new sport or volunteer at the event. Remember it’s about getting people out, trying something new.
Maybe you’d like to have an adventure without many people around. Quiet water activities such as kayaking, fly fishing and paddle boarding are things anyone can do at any age. Local shops such as Sportsman Outlet in Bradford, PA provide kayaks to try. Not only will they help you decide what kind of kayak you might like, they also advise you what gear you should take with you to be safe on the water, such as a life vest. Adventure Bound on the Fly in Ellicottville, NY, introduces one of the newest sports – paddle boarding, and one of the most graceful – fly fishing to young and old giving all a chance to paddle on Quaker Lake or cast with finesse.
Flat tire bicycle, photo by State Parks
Biking along the trails at Allegany, photo by State Parks
If it’s the woods that calls your name, programs such as mountain biking, cross country skiing, backpacking or camping might be more to your taste. Just Riding Along out of Bradford, PA, offers all kinds of mountain bikes – fat bikes, fast bikes and bikes with all the bells and whistles. Find dirt on the Art Roscoe trails which become tracked cross country ski trails when the snow flies in December. The Allegany Nordic Patrol not only keeps skiers safe during the winter, but they help educate winter enthusiasts about the joys of gliding and sliding on skis through a winter wonderland of snow cover trees.
Skiing in a winter wonderland, photo by State Parks
Try your hand at snowshoeing during a snowshoe program, photo by State Parks
Camping has always been a favorite activity since the park was first founded in 1921. The first adventurous souls camped in old WWI tents on platforms. Today the education staff pulls out tents, hammocks, and backpacks of all shapes and sizes for even the youngest of explorers to get out in the woods. Staff also answers questions such as what to take, how to pack, and what to do if you see a bear – all important things to know when going out in the woods of Allegany.
The Outdoor Adventure Series covers a wide range of interesting activities for every season, from photographing fall colors, to snowshoeing under a full moon, to fishing for native trout, and paddling on a warm summer night watching the sun set across a lake.
No matter what you try, I agree with Amelia Earhart: “Adventure is worthwhile in itself”.
Be sure to check out the last two programs this year:
Wednesday, November 1, 2017 – 5:00- 7:00 – Summit Warming Hut – Night Hike- What’s in your Pack? Night hike on Bear Paw trail following a short program on the 10 essentials we should carry in our packs. Bring a flashlight or head lamp.
Wednesday, December 6, 2017 -5:00- 6:30 – Summit Warming Hut – Prepare for Cross Country SkiSeason – Allegany Nordic will discuss everything you need to know about cross country skiing, from equipment selection to proper clothing.
These programs are open to the public and weather dependent. For more information, visit the Allegany State Park Facebook page or contact the Environmental Education Department at 716-354- 9101 ext. 236.