Where is Jack?

Jack is in the pulpit.

Who is Jack?

‘Jack’ is the spike flower cluster (or spadix) of the early spring wildflower known as bog onion, wild turnip, brown dragon, and most commonly jack-in-the-pulpit.  Jack’s pulpit is a modified leaf (known as a bract) that wraps around and drapes over the top of the flower like a hood.

BractSpadix

Jack-in-the-pulpits (Arisaema triphyllum) are perennial plants that are found in moist woodlands throughout New York.  They can grow from 12”-26” inches tall, with the leaves in clusters of three on a separate stalk.

The flowers, Jacks, that we see are either female or male. Smaller, younger jack-in-the-pulpits make male flowers and older, larger plants produce female flowers.  It takes three years for the plants to start to produce the green flowers.

The plant relies upon flies including fungal gnats and lake flies to pollinate the flowers. They are attracted to the flower’s fungal, mushroom, smell.  Gnats and flies can escape from the male flowers through a small hole in the side of the flower, but they get stuck inside the female flowers because there is no escape route.

Once the flower is fertilized, plants produce a green fruit/seed stalk in summer, which turns a bright red in fall.

RobRoutledge,
Jack-in-the-pulpit seed stalk in the fall, Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org

Resources and more information:

iNaturalist, Jack- in-the-Pulpit

New York Botanical Garden, Jack-in-the-pulpit: Pollination by Deception

New York Flora Atlas, Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum

St. Olas College, Jack-in-the-Pulpit

Wikipedia, Arisaema triphyllum

Wildflowers of the Southeastern US. Jack in the Pulpit

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