Tag Archives: wildflowers

Plants for Our Pollinators

New York State Parks is abuzz with excitement for pollinators.  From June 20-26, we celebrate both National Pollinator Week and New York State Pollinator Awareness Week.  Our local bees, butterflies, moths, birds and other pollinators are to thank for most of the food we eat, as well as for many of the trees and flowers we enjoy every day.  As these animals go from flower to flower to drink nectar, they accidentally carry sticky pollen from the anthers to the stigma, the male and female parts of flowers.  This fertilizes the eggs, which grow into seeds and fruits that we enjoy.

One of the ways you can show appreciation for these fantastic pollinators is to get out to natural areas in State Parks and enjoy the native flora.  You can also explore native plant gardens and learn more about using native plant species in your own backyard to attract pollinators.  Last year we paid homage to a few of our favorite New York pollinators.  This year, let’s have a closer look at some of the plants and the pollinators that visit them.

Just as pollinators come in all shapes and sizes, so too do the native plants that they enjoy.  Different plants attract different types of pollinators.  Look for all kinds of flowers in the woods, wetlands, meadows, gardens or orchards and you are apt to see some pollinators at work.  Below are some of the native pollinators and flora found in State Parks, with photos from the NY Natural Heritage Program.   NYNHP works in partnership with State Parks (OPRHP) to assess and conduct inventories of natural areas in state parks and helps to protect habitats that support common and rare species alike, including these important pollinators.

Cutleaf toothwort
Pollinators emerge as soon as there is nectar available for them to feed on. This native wildflower, cutleaf toothwort (Cardamine concatenata), was blooming the first week of April. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Pink Lady Slipper
Pink lady’s slippers (Cypripedium acaule) bloom in June and are pollinated by various kinds of bees. Photo by T. Howard, NYNHP.
wild geranium
A Juvenal’s duskywing (Erynnis juvenalis) feeds on wild geranium (Geranium maculatum), a common native wildflower of woods and openings. Photo by K. Perkins, NYNHP.
Azure Butterfly
The more showy spring azure butterfly emerges early in the spring and can be seen flitting about sunny trails and open areas. Photo by M. Adamovic for NYNHP.
Goldenrod
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are one of the most effective pollinators. You can see how the pollen sticks to its fuzzy body as this bee feeds on the nectar of this native goldenrod. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Ragwort
A Pearl crescent butterfly (Phyciodes tharos) feeds on ragwort (Packera aurea) that grows along river shores and wet areas. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
Bedstraw
Moths help pollinate too. Though most moths prefer night, this one is a daytime moth, seen here feeding on bedstraw (this one is non-native, but we have some native bedstraws too) and moving the pollen around in the process. Look for this native moth, the Virginia Ctenucha (Ctenucha virginica) in meadows with flowers from May to July. The caterpillars feed on grasses, so unmown meadows can provide everything this moth species needs year-round. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP.
NE Aster
In late summer and fall, the bright colors of asters and goldenrods are especially attractive to bees and many other insects. The native New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) blooms from August to September. This one is being visited by the Common Eastern Bumble Bee (Bombus impatiens). There are many species of bumblebees, but this one is by far the most common in the state, so the one you are most likely to see. Photo by J. Lundgren, NYNHP

Whether you are a hiker, gardener, farmer, or food-lover you can enjoy and support our local pollinators!  Maintaining natural areas, meadows or gardens with a variety of plants can help to sustain all the life stages of a wide range of insects from bees to butterflies.

If you are interested in creating a backyard oasis for native pollinators, look for plants that are native to your area of the state and, if possible, grown near where you live.  Consider planting different types of flowers; gardens with an array of flowers blooming at different times provide food for a variety of pollinators throughout the season.  Look for white, yellow or blue flowers to attract bees.  Red tubular flowers attract hummingbirds (bees don’t even see red).  Butterflies prefer bright flowers, particularly reds, oranges, and purple (like fall asters).  Moths are attracted to white, purple, or pink flowers with strong, sweet scents, especially those emitting a scent at night.  See resources below on pollinators and native plants in your area.

State Parks is celebrating pollinators at these events across the state:

Clay Pit Ponds State Park – Time Tuesdays, June 21 @ 10am

Learn about our native pollinators by making crafts, playing games, and socializing with other toddlers! Parent or care giver is required to stay. Ages 1-3 (flexible).  Please call (718) 605-3970 ext 201 for more information.

Saratoga Spa State Park – Butterfly Walk Friday, June 24 @2:00pm

Did you know restoring a habitat is like building a neighborhood?  Come enjoy a light hike at the Karner Blue site and learn what butterflies live in the same neighborhood as the Karner Blue butterfly.  Please wear hats and sunscreen.  You may want to bring binoculars or a magnifying glass to see butterflies up close.  This program is appropriate for ages 7 and up.  Registration is required.  Please call 518-584-2000 ext. 122. This program is free.

Thacher Nature Center – Honeybees Are Buzzin’, June 25 @ 2pm

Summertime brings flowers and a hive packed with activity! Come and learn all about honeybees as you view the colony in our indoor observation hive. See the busy workers, the specialized drones and the ever-important queen bee in action! Learn how to dance like a bee, and view the world from a bee’s perspective. Afterwards, take a walk to observe our honeybees at work in the gardens. Please register by calling 518-872-0800.

Letchworth State Park – Butterfly Beauties, June 26 @ 2pm

Study the beauty and composition of hundreds of dried butterfly specimens representing most of the world’s butterfly families. Dozens of local and New York species, as well as those found in the Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, are specially noted. Butterfly structure and local natural history will be featured in two new butterfly videos. This is an excellent primer for the Butterfly Walk on July 9th. (Look for details in the upcoming summer issue of The Genesee Naturalist.) All workshops meet in the Conference Room in the Visitor Center and Regional Administration Building located in Letchworth State Park.  Please call (585) 493-3680 for more information.

Ganondagan State Historic Site – Planting for Ethnobotany Workshop Saturday, August 6, 2016 @9:00am-11:00am

Participants will help plant native plants in the Green Plants Trail and the Pollinator Grassland at Ganondagan.  Ages 8 and up. Registration Required.  Please call (585) 924-5848 for more information.

For more about pollinators and native plantings:

 General Information

Confronting the Plight of  Pollinators

Gardening and pollinator information

— New York’s famous apple orchards would be naught without our beloved pollinators 

New York State Parks Native Plant Policy

 New York State Flora

— Have a plant to identify? Try GoBotany

Native plants for pollinators, by region

Please note, some of the plants listed in this resource are native to the ecoregion but not to NY state. Please check the NY Flora Atlas to confirm which are native to New York before choosing your planting list.

NY Flora Atlas – list of plants known in NY and which are native or not

Pollinator Identification Tools

— Have a bug to identify? Try BugGuide

— Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation Northeast Region Pollinator Plants

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Post by Erin Lennon, OPRHP and Julie Lundgren, NYNHP

Happy Second Birthday Nature Times!

 

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In this second year of Nature Times we have gotten to know snapping turtles, carnivorous plants, black squirrels, and Sammi, Trailside Museums’ 36 year old bald eagle.  We’ve learned how trails are mapped, how a flock of sheep and goats have become one of State Parks’ 21st century mowing crews, and ways to explore State Parks on foot, in kayaks, on snowmobiles, and on frozen lakes. The stories have featured all kinds of work that State Parks staff and volunteers do throughout the year to help preserve and protect some of New York’s unique and exceptional places. These range from protecting sand dunes on Lake Ontario and old-growth forest at Allegany, to creating native grasslands at Ganondagan State Historic Site, and monitoring invasive species infestations and removing invasive species both on land and water.

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We mark this second birthday with 61 new followers and over 24,000 page hits!  And we thank the 32 staff, interns, and partner organizations who have shared their passion for State Parks through the blogs that they have written. We also want to recognize our partnership with the New York Natural Heritage Program who helped in initiating this feature and continues to provide support.

We look forward to continuing our celebration of State Parks in the months to come in Nature Times.  Hope to see you soon at one of our Parks or Historic Sites!

Happy 1st Birthday, Blog!

It is NatureTimes’ first birthday and it is spring! So get outside and celebrate, the snow will soon be melted and signs of life are appearing all around. Dust off your nature guides and your binoculars, get on your boots, and get out to a park near you. Last year, we posted some images of wildflowers that are the first to appear. Check that out – see how many you remember (hover over the photo to see the name). Here are some other flora and fauna to look for in the coming month.

To date, the Nature Times blog has 97 followers and 15,102 page visits. Thank you for keeping up with us, and be sure to tell your friends and family!

Post by Julie Lundgren, NYNHP.

 

 

 

 

Harbinger of Spring: Skunk Cabbage

Walking in the woods this spring, especially in wet areas, you may notice these popping up through the snow. On closer inspection you will notice that it is, in fact, a plant! What you are seeing is the large spathe of the Skunk Cabbage plant. This plant has a very interesting flower structure and strategy for pollination.

Let’s learn about the flower structure first: The large fleshy hood is called the spathe; which encloses and protects the club-like spadix. The spadix is the surrounded by tiny flowers.

spadix
Diagram by Lilly Schelling.

Skunk Cabbage is one of the first wildflowers that emerge in spring. This is possible because the plant produces heat, thereby melting the snow around it. The coloration of the spathe varies from greenish to purple, often accompanied by spots or stripes. Two color variations are depicted below:

lilly photo
Photo by Lilly Schelling.
kelly photo
Photo by Kelly Starkweather.

Notice how the plant on the right resembles the look of raw meat, and if you smelled it you would notice a rather pungent skunky odor; hence the name Skunk Cabbage! These characteristics attract flies which pollinate these plants. You can experience the intense smell by scratching the leaf next time you see this plant in the woods.

Skunk Cabbage can be found in many of our state parks in swamp or wetland habitat. Though the plant has the “Cabbage” in name, it is not edible. The leaves contain calcium oxalate crystals that cause a painful burning sensation in the mouth when consumed. Even boiling the leaves does not rid them of all the irritating crystals.

Post by Lilly Schelling, OPRHP.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Native Spring Wildflowers

Spring is in the air and with warmer temperatures come the spring flowers everyone hopes to glimpse.  Most of the flowers people have come to associate with spring are not native to North America though.  Crocus, daffodils, hyacinths, and tulips, for example, are all European flowers.  There are, however, many native plants that “spring” up at this time of year.

Native plants are valuable for a variety of reasons.  They contribute to the biodiversity and health of ecosystems and provide habitat for birds, insects, and other wildlife.  Also, as they are acclimated to the local environment, native plants are often hardier and require less care than imported plants.

As you walk through the woods this spring, look for native plants growing beneath the trees.  In 1936, Minna Anthony Common made a list of plants that were native to the Thousand Islands Region in the journal she kept detailing her work on the Rock Ridges Nature Trail in Thousand Island Park.  These three were among the native plants that were already growing along the trail when she began to work on it.

bloodroot

Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) has white flowers with 8 to 12 petals that are approximately 1¼ inch wide.  The flowers sprout on 3 to 6 inch stems through folded leaves.  The deeply lobed leaves open as the plant grows.  When the root of the plant is cut, it “bleeds” a reddish- orange liquid.  This is what gives the plant its name.  Bloodroot prefers moist soil and partial shade and is often found along the woodland edge.  At the Minna Anthony Common Nature Center, bloodroot can be found in the flower bed along the front of the museum building.

spring beauty

Spring Beauty (Claytonia virginica) has small (½ to ¾ inch) pink or white flowers with darker pink veins.  Each plant has a single pair of long narrow leaves.  These flowers also prefer moist woodland habitats.

roundlobe hepatica

Hepatica (Hepatica nobilis) is a member of the buttercup family.  It has ½ to 1 inch wide blue, pink, or white flowers and three lobed leaves.  Hepatica begins blooming in early spring and will continue to bloom into the summer season.  Hepatica prefers partial shade and is often found in woodland habitats.

If you are interested in learning more about native plants, visit us at the Nature Center.  We have a many books about native plants in our library and gift shop.  We also have a copy of Minna Anthony Common’s journal available for our visitors to read.  Best of all, we have miles of trails where visitors can see these plants in their native habitat.  The best way to learn about nature is to experience it.

Post by Molly Farrell, Nature Center Director at Minna Anthony Common Nature Center (Wellesley Island State Park).

Sources:

Common, Minna.  Rock Ridges Nature Trail: Record of the Trail, journal kept by Common while developing the trail system

Newcomb, Lawrence. Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide. Little, Brown and Company, New York. 1977.

USDA Plants http://plants.usda.gov (accessed 3/10/2015)

Minnesota Wildflowershttp://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/virginia-spring-beauty (accessed 3/10/2015)

Prairie Moon Nursery www.prairiemoon.com  (accessed 3/10/2015)