Tag Archives: beaver

Working With Beavers to Minimize Negative Impacts

Beavers are native to New York State and play an important role in the natural landscape. They are ecosystem engineers – altering water levels by building strong dams using branches and mud; and creating wetland habitat where many plants and animals thrive. However in the wrong place, their dams can cause flooding and property damage. In 2016 a project was developed to minimize beaver impacts by building and installing Beaver Deceivers/ Flood Control Devices. Beaver deceivers stop the flooding caused by beavers, while continuing to allow beavers to live in State Park wetlands and other water bodies.

What is a beaver deceiver?

There are typically two kinds of beaver deceivers; a Trapezoidal-shaped Exclusion Fence (or Trapezoidal Fence for short) and a Pond Leveling Device. Let’s learn the purpose for each:

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graphic by Lilly Schelling

The Trapezoidal Fence is intended for situations where the beavers’ dam is clogging a culvert and may cause damage to the culvert itself.  The fence is placed in front of the culvert, extending out at least 12 feet out from shore with a closed floor so the beaver can’t dig under it. Beavers usually then build their dams along the sides of the fence but not the back – allowing water to flow through the fence into the culvert.

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graphic by Lilly Schelling

A Pond Leveling Device is made using an existing beaver dam. The dam is dug out (notched) to drop the water body to a desired water level and a corrugated pipe is placed through the dam and then covered back up with dam materials. Both ends are caged off to ensure water flow. The pond leveling device allows the beavers to continue building their dam around the pipe without raising water levels. Thus it prevents flooding of nearby roads and other use areas.

Installation

Materials for this project included 12″ corrugated pipe sections, 6 gauge epoxy coated fencing, copper hog rings to hold the fence together, and cinder blocks to sink structures and pipe.

Here’s a project where we dug out the beaver dam. It was fascinating to see how fast the water level  dropped. Beavers are extremely efficient! We also saw about 20 trout swim upstream over the dam to the beaver pond, taking advantage of the new access to the habitat. Naturally, the trout would persist below the dam until the dam fell apart after the beavers moved to a new home – which they do periodically. But in this case, we saw how our deceivers are also able to benefit other native animals.

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Occasionally, with very persistent beavers, the two deceiver methods may need to be combined (i.e. a Trapezoidal Fence with a Pond Leveling Device attached). This picture is the installation of the combined devices at the culvert under Route 301 on Canopus Lake in Clarence Fahnestock State Park. A boat was needed to move the dome and pipe around in the deep water.  Photo by Lilly Schelling

Finished Product

A pond leveling device installed at the bridge on the School Rd. Trail. The objective of this device was to decrease water levels so the trail would stop flooding. The line on the tree was the water level prior to installation.

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Trapezoidal Fence after installation on Beaver Pond Trail at Glimmer Glass State Park, photo by Lilly Schelling.

State Parks wildlife staff will monitor these beaver deceivers to ensure they continue to functioning properly and that they are still in place. Freezing and thawing during seasonal change may shift the placement of the device. Overall these devices have proven to be highly successful in solving beaver related flooding issues. It is great to solve human wildlife conflict in such a way that both human and wildlife can remain in the same area and neither is pushed out.

Post by Lilly Schelling, State Park Wildlife staff

Symbols of New York State Scavenger Hunt

Ah, Labor Day Weekend, a perfect weekend to take a hike through your favorite state park.  If you do take a hike, try the Symbols of New York State Scavenger Hunt – let us know how you did.

Red-Spotted Admiral or White Admiral butterflies are one our newest state symbol, they were designated as the state butterfly in 2008.  These butterflies are polytypic – meaning that there are different coloration patterns for this butterfly depending on where it lives. The white admiral variation has blackish blue wings with wide white band.

Admiral
White Admiral. Plismo (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons.
The red-spotted admiral lacks the wide white bands and sometimes has a row of red spots along the top of the wing. Overall the wings are a dark blue color with a light blue dusting on the hindwing.

If you are hiking in northern New York, you will only see the white admiral.  If you are hiking in any other part of the state, you will see either the red-spotted or white admiral.

Red Spotted Admiral
Red Spotted Admiral, note the red spots on the top wings. FrigidNinja (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons.
Look for Eastern Bluebirds in Park grasslands and on utility wires. These birds are primarily cavity nesters, utilizing hollowed out holes in trees and man-made nest boxes to lay their eggs. Bright blue males are easy to spot while females are a bit more challenging with blueish grey plumage.  Both have rust-colored chests and white bellies.  Eastern bluebirds have been our state bird since 1970.

New York’s largest rodent, the Beaver, can be found in wooded streams, marshes, and along the edge of ponds and lakes.  When you are walking near these wetlands, tree cuttings and chewed trees or shrubs near the shore is a great indicator that beavers are live nearby. If you hear a slap on a pond or marsh, the beaver has spotted you and has slapped its tail on the water to warn other beavers that you are around.  If you can find a spot to hide and have time to wait, you might get a glimpse of these shy animals.  Beavers have been our state mammal since 1975.

Snapping Turtles can be found in marshes, rivers, streams, lakes, and even in urban waterways.  Our largest turtle, their shells can be upwards of 20” long and they can weigh up to 35 lbs.  The upper part of the snapping turtle shell or carapace has three keels or ridges.  The turtle’s shell can vary in color from tan, brown, olive gray or black.  They have a long tail with saw-toothed ridges. Interestingly, snapping turtles have the smallest plastron (or bottom part of their shell) in proportion to their body of any turtle in New York State. Most of their defense strategy is their large size. Look for these turtles swimming slowly through the water with their head poking out of the surface or perched on rocks near the water’s edge. Remember to keep your distance from these turtles; their jaws have a powerful snap! Snapping turtles became our state reptile in 2006.

Female Snapper
Female Snapping Turtle. Lilly Schelling, NYSOPRHP.

The rare Nine-Spotted Ladybug has been our state insect since 1989.  Slightly bigger than a dime, these oval-shaped insects typically have nine-spots on their backs.  If you think you found one, please take a photo, record where you found it and send all the information to The Lost Ladybug Project.

9 Spotted Ladybug
Nine Spotted Ladybug, each wing usually has four spots, plus one spot that overlaps on both wings. http://musingsofabiologistanddoglover.blogspot.com/2011/08/lost-ladybugs.html?_sm_au_=iVVV163fqrZsRWDr.

The Sugar Maple was designated as our state tree in 1956. The bark of a young sugar maple is smooth and dark gray; as the tree ages the bark becomes furrowed in uneven long plates.   Sugar maples have easily recognized leaves that are between 3”-5” long and 3”-5” wide, usually with 5 shallow ‘u-shaped” lobes.   Perhaps you will see the leaves a few of these beautiful trees turning red or yellow during your walk.

And remember to stop and smell the Roses during your hike.  If you do, perhaps you will see some late flowers on some of our native roses such as this Common Wild Rose.  The flowers can be observed either individually or in small bunches.  Look for the common wild rose along roadsides, fields, and salt marshes.  Roses were designed our state flower in 1955; they are our oldest state symbol.

Rose
Common Wild Rose. magnolia1000 from Canada (Rosa virginiana) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons.
When you are done, why not enjoy some New York state goodies: milk, the state beverage (designated 1981); apple muffin, the state muffin (designated 1987); apple, the state fruit (designated 1976); or yogurt, the state snack (designated 2014.).

Snack
Photo and snack prepared by Susan Carver, OPRHP.

Post by Susan Carver, OPRHP.

Learn more at:

http://www.dec.ny.gov/education/1887.html

http://www.dos.ny.gov/kids_room/508/symbols2.html

http://explorer.natureserve.org/

http://plants.usda.gov/java/