Tag Archives: spotted lantern fly

Get Out, Darned Spot!

Some of you may have heard about New York’s newest worst pest: The Spotted Lanternfly. This little critter is ransacking our crops, destroying property, annoying park visitors, and generally making everything sticky and gross.

An artistic image of an adult Spotted Lanternfly (SLF) is the top of this article. We are asking for volunteers like you to look for and report any SLF and its favorite Tree-of-Heaven (TOH) plant using the invasive species tracking software iMap either online or on the mobile app.

What is the Spotted Lanternfly (SLF)?

The Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula), is an invasive species from parts of China, India, Vietnam and Taiwan, which feeds on more than 70 different plants (especially the invasive Tree-of-Heaven).

The invasive Tree-of-Heaven, a favorite of the Spotted Lanternfly, is present in much of New York State (Photo Credit – New York State Floral Atlas, National Forest Service)
The leaves and flowers of the Tree-of-Heaven (Photo credit – University of Georgia/Bugwood.org)

As an unintended consequence of global trade, the insect  likely reached North America due to inadvertently hitching a ride in cargo shipping containers in the Far East. First reported in Pennsylvania in 2014, SLF has spread to neighboring states when people accidentally move stowaway egg masses to new locations.

Such international shipping has helped spread many invasives species, and national governments have been slow to recognize and address the issue.

Why do we need to “Stop the Spot?”

According to a Penn State study at the College of Agricultural Science, if not contained, damage caused by SLF is estimated to cost “at least $324 million annually and cause the loss of about 2,800 jobs” in Pennsylvania alone.

Spotted Lanternflies feed upon fruit trees, grapevines and hops (which hurts fruit, wine and beer production, an important and growing industry in the Finger Lakes and other areas of New York State), and our beautiful hardwood trees. At the same time, they secrete a sticky honeydew which creates a sooty mold that damages property.

The honeydew and mold also attract stinging insects such as wasps and bees, creating an overall unpleasant atmosphere. No one wants to do outdoor activities when everything is covered in sugary bug poop.

A representation of the Spotted Lanternfly during its lifecycle. A winged adult SLF is center. The insect as it appears with black and white markings after hatching during May and June is to the right. As the insect matures, it changes from black to mainly red, usually during July through September, as shown to the left. It assumes it adult, winged form in late summer, and lays its eggs in the fall, starting the cycle again. (Artwork by Juliet Linzmeier, Student Conservation Association member, Invasive Species Unit, NYS Parks)

            Where is it?

It could be right by you this year! Here is our most up-to-date map of known SLF infestations. Your reports of sightings could change the way this map looks!

On this map, currently infested counties are highlighted blue, while isolated sightings are represented by a red dot. Note that Ithaca County, in the heart of Finger Lakes wine country, is currently listed as infested. However, since infestation in New York State is not yet widespread, there is still time for us all to take important and effective action to mitigate the spread of SPF.

How do we “Stop the Spot?”

Remember these three steps: Report. Inspect. Destroy.

  • REPORT sightings of SLF
    • Download the iMapInvasives Mobile app or go online. You’ll be adding directly into our database.
    • Be sure to take pictures at any life stage (egg masses, larvae, adult insect or groups of infestations) with an item like a ruler or coin for scale.
    • Include the location: address or GPS coordinates (simply enable your location tracking when using the iMap app).
    • Adopt a square!: Consider signing up for a grid square near you to keep us regularly updated about special high-priority locations. 
    • Prefer E-mail? Send your info to SpottedLanternfly@agriculture.ny.gov
    • Eggs are laid on hard surfaces and may be covered or uncovered.
  • INSPECT your gear for stowaways and egg masses
    • Check your car, equipment, and materials when coming from infested areas (certain counties in Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Maryland).
    • Egg masses can sometimes resemble mud, and these hitchhikers will hide in your car’s bumper, hood, etc.
  • DESTROY 
    • For every single SLF you kill, you prevent potentially hundreds of plant-sucking critters from draining our economy next year.
    • Look for the different stages throughout the year. Right now in May, focus your search for the nymphs: The first instar nymph is approximately ¼” long and black with white spots, and occasionally mistaken for a tick. Second and third instar nymphs are also black with white spots, but the fourth instar nymph takes on a red coloration with white spots and can be up to ¾”. Fourth instar nymphs molt and become adults approximately 1 inch in length.
    • If egg masses are found, scrap off and destroy them by putting them into doubled bags with alcohol/hand sanitizer, or by smashing/burning them. Honestly, get as dramatic as you want.
The lifecycle of the Spotted Lanternfly, which should be hatching out from its overwintering eggs during May and June. (Photo Credit – Cornell University/NY Integrated Pest Management)

How we manage SLF

While preventative measures are always best, the sooner a new infestation is found, the better chance we have of managing the situation. Our Park’s staff use a combination of strategies to manage SLF, some of which get quite creative…

  • Sticky bands and circle traps on trees will catch some nymphs and adults but are mostly useful for helping us monitor SLF whereabouts.
  • Bio-controls (predators, parasitoids, and insect-killing fungus) are in the works to help control SLF long-term but aren’t happening yet.
  • We’ll also create “trap trees” where we’ll cut most of the invasive Tree of Heaven, then inject a pesticide into the remaining tree. This kills any SLF that take a drink (like how flea treatments on your dog will kill any flea that takes a bite!).
  • Scraping egg masses and destroying them reduces next year’s population.
  • Be aware of look-alikes as seen in this poster

Even with these strategies, we need all the help we can get to stop these spots! Help us by killing SLF at all life stages.

Destroy their egg masses!

Stomp black/red nymphs!

Squish the flying adults!

And then tell us about it when you do.

There’s even a new app specifically for squishing SLF called Squishr which aims to make the hunt into a fun competition for the whole family (especially kids)!

Researchers need as much time as possible to investigate the best possible methods for managing SLF before they damage our resources even worse, so reporting new infestations makes a huge difference!

Through a collective effort of reporting, destroying, and inspecting for stowaways, we can combat the spread of the Spotted Lanternfly. 

For more information, go to Spotted Lanternfly – NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation


Cover shot – An adult Spotted Lanternfly. Artwork by Juliet Linzmeier.

Post by Juliet Linzmeier, Student Conservation Association member, Invasive Species Unit, NYS Parks

Invasive Species Spotlight – Spotted Lantern Fly

What is the spotted lanternfly?

The spotted lanternfly (SLF) is an invasive pest from Asia that primarily feeds on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) but can also feed on a wide variety of plants such as grapevine, hops, maple, walnut, fruit trees and others. This insect could impact New York’s forests as well as the state’s agricultural and tourism industries.

Identification

Nymphs are black with white spots and turn red before transitioning into adults. They can be seen as early as April. Adults begin to appear in July and are approximately 1 inch long and ½ inch wide at rest, with eyecatching wings. Their forewings are grayish with black spots. The lower portions of their hindwings are red with black spots, and the upper portions are dark with a white stripe. In the fall, adults lay 1-inch-long egg masses on nearly anything from tree trunks and rocks to vehicles and firewood. They are smooth and brownish-gray with a shiny, waxy coating when first laid.

Where are they located?

SLF were first discovered in Pennsylvania in 2014 and have since been found in New Jersey, Delaware and Virginia. As of spring 2018, New York has no infestations, though it’s possible they are present in low numbers and have not been detected yet. Given the proximity of the Pennsylvania infestation, it is expected to be found in New York eventually.

Hatched eggs
Hatched spotted lantern fly eggs, photo by Kenneth R. Law, Bugwood.org

What is the risk to NYS?

SLF pose a significant threat to New York’s agricultural and forest health. Adults and nymphs use their sucking mouthparts to feed on the sap of more than 70 plant species. Feeding by sometimes-thousands of SLF stresses plants, making them vulnerable to disease and attacks from other insects. SLF also excrete large amounts of sticky “honeydew,” which attracts sooty molds that interfere with plant photosynthesis, negatively affecting the growth and fruit yield of plants. New York’s annual yield of apples and grapes, with a combined value of $358.4 million, could be impacted if SLF enters New York. The full extent of economic damage this insect could cause is unknown at this time. Although native insects also secrete honeydew, the size of SLF and the large populations that congregate in an area result in large accumulations of it. The sticky mess and the swarms of insects it attracts can significantly hinder outdoor activities. In Pennsylvania, where SLF populations are the densest, people can’t be outside without getting honeydew on their hair, clothes, and other belongings.

Adults
A cluster of adult spotted lantern flies, photo by Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org

How do they spread to new areas?

While SLF can jump and fly short distances, they spread primarily through human activity. They often hitch rides to new areas when they lay their eggs on vehicles, firewood, outdoor furniture, stones, etc. and are inadvertently transported long distances.

Fungal Mat at base of tree
Fungal mat at the base of a tree that is infested with spotted lantern flies, photo by Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org

What are the signs of an infestation?

  • Sap oozing or weeping from tiny open wounds on tree trunks, which appears wet and may give off fermented odors.
  • One-inch-long egg masses that are brownish-gray, waxy and mudlike when new. Old egg masses are brown and scaly.
  • Massive honeydew build-up under plants, sometimes with black sooty mold.

What is being done?

NY Dept. of Conservation, DEC, is working with the NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets and the US Department of Agriculture to address SLF. Since it is less expensive and easier to deal with a pest before it becomes widespread, the goal is to find SLF early or prevent it from entering NY altogether. A plan has been developed that describes how the agencies will prevent and detect SLF in New York. Extensive trapping surveys will be conducted in high risk areas throughout the state as well as inspections of nursery stock, stone shipments, commercial transports, etc. from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. DEC and partner organizations encourage everyone to be on the lookout for this pest. State Parks and others are also mapping locations of tree of heaven, an invasive tree that is a known host of SLF to target places to look for SLF. Where feasible, reducing populations of tree of heaven may also be beneficial.

What can I do?

  • Learn how to identify SLF.
  • Inspect outdoor items such as firewood, vehicles, and furniture for egg masses.
  • If you visit states with SLF, be sure to check all equipment and gear before leaving. Scrape off any egg masses. Visit agriculture.pa.gov for more information on SLF in PA.
  • Learn about invasive species during New York Invasive Species Awareness Week.

If you believe you have found SLF in New York…

  • Take pictures of the insect, egg masses and/or infestation signs as described above (include something for scale such as a coin or ruler)
  • Note the location (address, intersecting roads, landmarks or GPS coordinates)
  • Email the information to DEC at spottedlanternfly@dec.ny.gov
  • Report the infestation to iMapInvasives

 

Printer friendly version of this information can be found here.