Origin: This species is native to the Caucasus Mountains of Eurasia. It was brought first to Europe and the UK in the 19th century, followed by the US in the early 20th century to be used as an ornamental plant in flower gardens.
NYS Presence: Giant hogweed has become established throughout the entire state.
Species Profile: Giant hogweed can grow to extreme heights of 15 to 20 feet! Its robust stems are covered with dark purple colored blotches and elevated nodules. Some of these stems can reach 4 inches in diameter! Giant hogweed leaves are proportional in size, with some reaching a width of 5 feet. These leaves are compound, greatly incised, and lobed. Its flowers grow in a flat-topped formation that can be easily compared to an umbrella. This cluster of flowers can reach up to 2 ½ feet across. A few species that can be mistaken as giant hogweed are as follows: native cow parsnip, native purple-stemmed angelica, and invasive wild parsnip.
Giant hogweed is often found in wetland areas near rivers, where it is known to out compete other species for habitat. When native plants are displaced, bank erosion may also increase. This plant is labeled as invasive or noxious due to its poisonous sap. This sap contains a chemical that sensitizes the skin to UV rays. If the skin comes in contact with the sap and is exposed to sunlight, the results may be blistering, severe burns, and/or painful sores. Irritation usually appears within 1 to 3 days after the exposure. This reaction is called “phytophotodermatitis”. Follow this link to the giant hogweed hotline number and other tips for what to do if you or someone you know encounters giant hogweed.
Origin: Kudzu was first introduced to the southern US in the late 1800’s as an ornamental plant to shade porches. In the early 1900s, farmers were encouraged to plant kudzu for erosion control and in the 1930’s the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) planted thousands of acres of it along hillsides for that same purpose. Kudzu wasn’t recognized as an invasive species by the USDA until 1953.
NYS Presence: Lower Hudson Valley and Long Island
Species Profile: Kudzu is a perennial, semi-woody, climbing vine that can reach up to 100 feet in length! Kudzu leaves are compound (i.e., made up of three separate leaflets) and are oval to heart-shaped. In the late summer, vertically growing stems produce fragrant purple flowers that are followed by the production of hairy, brown, flattened seed pods. Kudzu can grow up to one foot per day, which makes it capable of outgrowing almost anything! This fast-growing plant competes with native trees and plants for sunlight, water and nutrients from the soil.
Note the leaves are in clusters of three, photo courtesy of Shawn Gorman, Friend of Old Croton Aqueduct.
8″ – 10″ fragrant flowers can be seen in mid-summer, photo by Forest & Kim Star, Bugwood.org
Roughly 2 million acres of forests in the southern US are covered with kudzu! Let’s prevent this from happening in NY. If found, please report findings to iMapInvasives. Take note of your location, photograph the species and then upload!
A dense stand of kudzu along the Old Croton Aqueduct State Historic Park, photo courtesy of Shawn Gorman, Friends of Old Croton Aqueduct.
Dense stands of kudzu along the Old Croton Aqueduct State Historic Park in Yonkers were removed in 2016 by State Parks Invasive Species Strike Team, photo courtesy of Shawn Gorman, Friends of Old Croton Aqueduct State Historic Park.
State Parks Invasive Species Strike Team removes kudzu along the Old Croton Aqueduct State Historic Park, photo courtesy of Shawn Gorman, Friends of Old Croton Aqueduct State Historic Park.
Reminder: Poison ivy is another species with three leaflets, so be sure to brush up on your plant ID before handling these species.
The spotted lanternfly (SLF) is an invasive pest from Asia that primarily feeds on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) but can also feed on a wide variety of plants such as grapevine, hops, maple, walnut, fruit trees and others. This insect could impact New York’s forests as well as the state’s agricultural and tourism industries.
Nymphs are black with white spots and turn red before transitioning into adults. They can be seen as early as April. Adults begin to appear in July and are approximately 1 inch long and ½ inch wide at rest, with eyecatching wings. Their forewings are grayish with black spots. The lower portions of their hindwings are red with black spots, and the upper portions are dark with a white stripe. In the fall, adults lay 1-inch-long egg masses on nearly anything from tree trunks and rocks to vehicles and firewood. They are smooth and brownish-gray with a shiny, waxy coating when first laid.
Early spotted lantern fly nymph, photo by Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Second stage spotted lantern fly nymph, Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Late instar, or final stage nymph, spotted lantern fly, Lawrence Barringer, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Where are they located?
SLF were first discovered in Pennsylvania in 2014 and have since been found in New Jersey, Delaware and Virginia. As of spring 2018, New York has no infestations, though it’s possible they are present in low numbers and have not been detected yet. Given the proximity of the Pennsylvania infestation, it is expected to be found in New York eventually.
What is the risk to NYS?
SLF pose a significant threat to New York’s agricultural and forest health. Adults and nymphs use their sucking mouthparts to feed on the sap of more than 70 plant species. Feeding by sometimes-thousands of SLF stresses plants, making them vulnerable to disease and attacks from other insects. SLF also excrete large amounts of sticky “honeydew,” which attracts sooty molds that interfere with plant photosynthesis, negatively affecting the growth and fruit yield of plants. New York’s annual yield of apples and grapes, with a combined value of $358.4 million, could be impacted if SLF enters New York. The full extent of economic damage this insect could cause is unknown at this time. Although native insects also secrete honeydew, the size of SLF and the large populations that congregate in an area result in large accumulations of it. The sticky mess and the swarms of insects it attracts can significantly hinder outdoor activities. In Pennsylvania, where SLF populations are the densest, people can’t be outside without getting honeydew on their hair, clothes, and other belongings.
How do they spread to new areas?
While SLF can jump and fly short distances, they spread primarily through human activity. They often hitch rides to new areas when they lay their eggs on vehicles, firewood, outdoor furniture, stones, etc. and are inadvertently transported long distances.
What are the signs of an infestation?
Sap oozing or weeping from tiny open wounds on tree trunks, which appears wet and may give off fermented odors.
One-inch-long egg masses that are brownish-gray, waxy and mudlike when new. Old egg masses are brown and scaly.
Massive honeydew build-up under plants, sometimes with black sooty mold.
What is being done?
NY Dept. of Conservation, DEC, is working with the NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets and the US Department of Agriculture to address SLF. Since it is less expensive and easier to deal with a pest before it becomes widespread, the goal is to find SLF early or prevent it from entering NY altogether. A plan has been developed that describes how the agencies will prevent and detect SLF in New York. Extensive trapping surveys will be conducted in high risk areas throughout the state as well as inspections of nursery stock, stone shipments, commercial transports, etc. from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. DEC and partner organizations encourage everyone to be on the lookout for this pest. State Parks and others are also mapping locations of tree of heaven, an invasive tree that is a known host of SLF to target places to look for SLF. Where feasible, reducing populations of tree of heaven may also be beneficial.
What can I do?
Learn how to identify SLF.
Inspect outdoor items such as firewood, vehicles, and furniture for egg masses.
If you visit states with SLF, be sure to check all equipment and gear before leaving. Scrape off any egg masses. Visit agriculture.pa.gov for more information on SLF in PA.
Yes its true, boaters can expect to be offered free boat washes from stations at select boat launches throughout the state, especially in places like the Adirondacks. The purpose of these stations are to provide free boat washes while also helping to prevent the spread of certain invasive species.
Everyone takes the time to give their cars a good wash periodically, but have you ever thought about how often you should be cleaning your boat? Boats can be carriers of invasive plants and animals. Most of the time, you can see these plants hanging off your propeller, bunks, and trailer and you can simply pick them off. However, some invasive species, like the young of zebra mussels and Asian Clams (called veligers) are so small they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Yet just adding a few of these into a lake or other waterbody is enough to start an invasion.
When we wash our boats, also known as decontaminating, it reduces the chances of transporting harmful invasive species, such as zebra and quagga mussels, spiny waterfleas, or Asian clams, to additional waterbodies.
How do boat wash stations work?
Boat washing begins with a general boat and trailer inspection. A trained professional, typically a boat or watercraft steward, first checks over your boat to see if it needs to be cleaned. If a boat is noticeably dirty and has visible plant matter on it, or if the boat was previously in a different waterbody, there is a good chance the boat steward will offer to decontaminate your boat for free. After a visual inspection of the boat and trailer, the boat steward will ask you to lower your propeller, just low enough to check if there is any water in the engine. If water comes out, the engine will need to be flushed of that foreign water with 120o F water from the boat wash station.
At pristine waterbodies like Lake George, boat stewards are more concerned with boats going into the lake that were previously elsewhere. In other lakes where many invasive species are already present, boat stewards may focus their decontamination efforts on boats exiting the water, to prevent furthering the spread of those species.
Afterwards, if the boat steward determines that you also should have a full decontamination, they will begin cleaning your boat. The water in the boat wash station is heated up to 140oF with pressure as high as 1,400 PSI. This temperature and pressure has been shown to kill most animals and plants trying to hitchhike on your boat. For specific areas where electronics and engine components are exposed, lower pressure is used to prevent damage to the boats. Boat trailers with felt bunks will be soaked in 140 o F using a low pressure attachment to kill any invasive species that may be hitchhiking on this material.
During the washing, it is important to wash the outside of the boat and trailer, including the propeller, hull, trailer hitch, and underneath the trailer. It is also important to flush the engine and drain the bilge to ensure the boat is properly decontaminated. Boat wash stations can recycle contaminated water and heat it again, ensuring that its runoff will not contaminate the waterbody. Boat stewards take special care to be sure that no damage happens to the boats during cleaning.
Boat wash stations are an effective way to clean your boat of all invasives, including those that may be too small to see. Using the boat washing station is the most efficient and effective way to stop the spread of aquatic invasive species, while also providing a free cleaning of your boat and trailer!
Thanks for helping keep New York’s pristine lakes and rivers clean, so we can continue to enjoy them for generations to come!
Click here for more information on boat decontamination procedures:
Decontaminating your boat with a boat wash station is always suggested, but be aware that some lakes, such as Lake George, require you to get a decontamination before launching.
Heading to the Adirondacks or Lake George? Find a boat wash station here.
Since 2010, State Parks has hired seasonal Invasive Species Strike Teams to perform removals of terrestrial invasive plants in New York State Parks and Historic Sites. The work of the Strike Teams allows Parks staff to identify and protect areas of ecological significance that are vulnerable to the growing threat that invasive species pose.
In 2016, two crews were hired, an Eastern Strike Team and a Western Strike Team. Each crew worked a 25-week field season (May 30 – November 18), camping out for much of the time and carrying heavy packs and gear to work sites.
The Eastern Strike Team covered Parks and Historic Sites in the Saratoga-Capital, Taconic, Palisades and Long Island regions.
Over the course of the field season, the crew visited 29 parks in 12 counties.
They worked on 38 different projects, targeting 32 invasive plant species.
The top three focal species were: Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus – 18 acres removed), Phragmites (Phragmites australis – 12 acres removed) and Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii – 10 acres removed).
Surveys and invasives removals were done on a total of 98 acres.
Much of the work focused on protecting rare elements including:
Karner Blue Butterfly and Sandplain Gerardia – federally endangered
Slender Blue Flag Iris and the rare Pink Tickseed – state threatened
Cerulean Warbler and Golden Winged Warbler – state listed species of special concern
A globally rare maritime grassland habitat
The Eastern Strike Team also spent a portion of their time surveying for the Southern Pine Beetle, an insect native to the southeast U.S., which has spread to the northeast, causing large-scale pine die-off on Long Island. The beetle has been detected in traps in State Parks in the Hudson Valley, but no confirmed infestations have yet been found in Pitch Pines in that region. Surveys were conducted in Schunnemunk State Park, Harriman State Park, and Minnewaska State Park Preserve.
Strike Team members David Hendler and Mike Ferri inspect a pitch pine for evidence of Southern Pine Beetle , photo by Casey Bannon, State Parks
Strike Team members David Hendler and Mike Ferri survey for Southern Pine Beetle at Schunnemunk State Park, Photos by Casey Bannon, State Parks
The Western Strike Team focused on the Finger Lakes, Central, Thousand Islands, Niagara, Allegany and Genesee Regions.
Over the course of the field season, they visited 22 parks in 15 counties.
They worked on 50 different projects, targeting 19 invasive plant species.
The top three focal species were: Pale Swallowwort (Cynanchum rossicum), Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and Buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.).
Topping the ranks in numbers or volume removed were: 2.79 acres of Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) surveyed and removed, 35,025 Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata ) plants, 34 bags of Pale Swallowwort (Cynanchum rossicum), and 7 dumpsters filled with Phragmites (Phragmites australis).
Western strike team member Sienna McDonald conquers a honeysuckle plant, photo by Dallas Ortel, State Parks
Western strike team member Phil Bossert works on a pale swallow-wort removal project, photo by Sienna McDonald, State Parks
State Parks also hired two Forest Health Specialists to perform surveys for two non-native insect pests: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) and Emerald Ash Borer (EAB). These surveys alert New York State Parks invasive species staff to new infestations, assist staff in identifying infested trees that can potentially be saved and allow for the identification and removal of trees that may pose a risk to the safety of park patrons. Forest Health Specialists also performed HWA canopy monitoring (tree-climbing) surveys at sites where HWA-infested trees had been treated previously with chemical insecticides. At these sites, the crew collected data on infestation levels and overall tree health in order to assist invasive species staff in monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.
Over the course of the 18-week field season, the crew was able to visit 17 different parks.
HWA canopy monitoring surveys were performed in 8 parks, and a total of 42 trees were surveyed.
All hemlock trees that had been treated with insecticides in previous years showed either no sign of infestation or signs of improvement.
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) surveys were performed in 14 different parks, and the crew confirmed two new sites of EAB infestation.
Aquatic Invasive Species
The New York State Park’s Boat Steward Program is one of many boat steward programs throughout New York State. These programs provide targeted educational programming to increase awareness about aquatic invasive species (AIS) and other environmentally significant issues.
Did you know that NY State Parks adopted regulations in 2015 to help try to protect our lakes and rivers from the costly effects of invasive species? Find an FAQ about the new regulations here.
The regulations states that a boater:
shall not launch or retrieve their watercraft from a Parks-owned boat launch facility unless the watercraft’s water-containing compartments (livewell, bilge, bait bucket) are dry.
has inspected the watercraft to ensure that there is not plant or animal material attached to the motor, trailer, body of the vessel, etc.
The Boat Steward Program has stewards at many of our Parks-owned boat launches across the state who conduct educational boat inspections to provide step-by-step instructions on ways you can effectively inspect your boat and dispose of invasive species. These demonstrations are both free and voluntary.
Boat Stewards can help you learn about what to do to prevent spreading aquatic invasives and what to look for. They are primarily educators and do not play a role in the enforcement of regulations.
Many Parks-owned boat launches across the state are also equipped with disposal stations for aquatic plant or animal material. The disposal stations are designed to provide a place for plant or animal material to dry out in an upland area. The dried out material is typically collected and placed in the garbage to prevent any further spread.
When you come across a red-shirted Boat Steward, please stop and ask any questions you may have.
2016 Boat Steward Program Highlights:
2016 was the first year of a 2-year $500,000 grant from the Environmental Protection Agency to expand the boat steward program at state park launches
16 stewards worked 30 launches within the Great Lakes Basin, Lake Champlain Basin, and Saratoga Lake
There were 21,431 voluntary inspections out of 22,344 boats (95% of boaters allowed their boat to be inspected)
2,982 boats were discovered carrying aquatic invasive species
54,627 boaters interacted with Stewards, with many boaters receiving education about Clean-Drain-Dry and aquatic invasive species
11 invasive species removal projects in partnership with Strike Teams and other partners
10 educational events
Approximately 500 bags, or around 12.5 tons, of water chestnut were removed from Selkirk Shores State Park.