Welcome to the Hudson Highlands, New York City’s backyard! Just a short train ride or a car ride from NYC, people can regain their sense of summer freedom in the network of trails throughout the Eastern Hudson Highlands. Patrons come from all over – day-trippers from neighboring states, as well as international hikers staying in NYC – to enjoy a pleasant hike. The trails are as diverse as the people who visit, and there is a trail for every type of hiking goal.
Breakneck Ridge and the Washburn/Cornish Trailhead are two of the most popular trailheads, which are places where trails begin. These trailheads are where you are likely to bump into a summer trail steward. New York-New Jersey Trail Conference (NYNJTC) staff is stationed at Breakneck while State Parks stewards are posted at Washburn on weekends and either location during the weekdays. Say hello to the trail stewards at either spot; they can help suggest the best route options and point out unique features that can be found along your desired hike. Trail stewards from State Parks are based out of the Taconic Outdoor Education Center (TOEC): Outdoor Educators, Student Conservation Association (SCA) members, and seasonal staff who all teach about the natural world. Stewards are happy to answer questions about any animals you have seen or plants you have discovered. You can even chat to get some information about local history and places to go post-hike.
Mike Orellana playing guitar on a slow day, photo by Katie Tarsiewicz
Information Board, photo by Katie Tarsiewicz
Trail stewards are here to empower people with information about safety and about protecting the fragile natural area of the state park. Working as a part if visitor services, trail stewards help hikers make more informed, positive decisions. Did you know that trail blazes or trail markers indicate which way the trail winds through the forest? Trail stewards are there to help brief people on how to read the blazes so that hikers stay on the trail. Wandering off trail has a devastating impact on the mountains’ natural resources, which supports rare species and sensitive natural communities. Some hikers purposefully stray from the path, thereby creating false or social trails that can easily mislead novice hikers and escalate erosion, a major issue in the state park. The rocky summit communities along the ridgeline can be destroyed by visitors trampling the low lying vegetation. So tread lightly and stick to the designated trails and viewpoints marked on the trail maps. The goal is to allow people to utilize the mountains as a recreational resource without harming or putting too much stress on the ecosystem. When hikers make informed decisions, the state park stays in better condition for current and future generations.
Breakneck and Washburn trailheads are the last outposts before you begin your journey to the ridgetops and woods, so make sure to prepare ahead of time. There are many trails that intersect and overlap. Grab a free detailed, colored map of the Eastern Hudson Highlands as well as valuable advice from the stewards. Make sure to bring plenty of water: at least one to two liters during the hot, humid summer months. Water needs vary based on climate, exertion, and individual needs. Just remember that there are no water fountains or pumps along the trails. Washburn has complimentary water most weekends in the summer to help unprepared hikers avoid dehydration. Snacks may also be useful, providing fuel for long and strenuous hikes. Other helpful items may include sunscreen, sturdy hiking shoes, and bug spray. Trail stewards will remind you to “Leave No Trace” (LNT). LNT is a set of seven principles that provide an outline for outdoor ethics, such as, “Plan and Prepare,” “Carry Out Items that you Carry In,” “Leave what you Find,” “Respect Wildlife,” and “Be Considerate of Other Visitors.” Essentially, you want to leave no trace of your visit so that the mountains look the same as before entering the state park. The LNT outdoor ethics are critical for patrons to observe in order to preserve the natural splendor of the Hudson Highlands.
State Parks is also planning for improved management of the park by collecting and analyzing data. Trail stewards keep track of the number of hikers who start their hikes from these trailheads and conduct surveys to get vital feedback from patrons. Hikers can help influence future planning in the region by taking a moment to complete a brief survey. You can take the survey by speaking with a summer trail steward or answering the questions online. You can help by taking surveys for other trails by clicking on “Survey” under “Quick Links” at the bottom of the State Parks’ website.
As the summertime comes to a close, the trail stewards move from their summer post to other duties until the next summer season. While the trail stewards may be gone, the trails are still eager to be traveled. Soon there will be a crisp nip in the air signaling the beginning of autumn. Will you be there when the forest erupts in a sea of rich, fall colors? Will you help uphold the outdoor ethics to safeguard the natural resources of the Hudson Highlands?
Learn more about the forest and summits on these trails:
When quizzed about some of their best loved hikes in State Parks, our staff had to choose from amongst the hundreds of miles of hiking trails along shorelines, through mountains and open fields, overlooking lakes, rivers and gorges, and meandering through old growth forests.
Here are some of their favorites. (Note: trail maps can be found at each park’s website)
Mike’s favorite: Mine Kill State Park, located in the scenic and historic Schoharie Valley, is about an hour southwest of Albany. The park boasts almost 10 miles of trails, the most well-known being definitely the five-mile section of the Long Path. The Long Path (LP) is a 358 mile-long hiking trail running from New York City to John Boyd Thacher State Park just south of Albany. This particular section of the LP was designated as a National Recreation Trail by the Department of the Interior (National Park Service) in 2014 due to its unique flora and fauna, diverse history and incredible scenery. Along this stretch of trail, a hiker may wander past active bald eagle nests, the picturesque Mine Kill and Schoharie Creek, the historic Lansing Manor and its namesake, the 80-foot high Mine Kill Falls.
Nancy’s favorite: The Indian Ladder Trail (0.40 miles long) in Thacher State Park near Albany is like a hike through geological history. You get an up close look at the 1,200 foot high limestone escarpment as you climb metal staircases to start (and end) your hike along the bottom of the escarpment. Layers of limestone, sandstone, and shale, lifted and eroded by wind, water, and other elements, formed the escarpment over 100 million years ago. Prehistoric people used nearby areas as hunting camps, possibly as early as 6,000 B.C. Native Americans traversed the escarpment via footpaths and logs (acting as ladders) between the Mohawk/Hudson and Schoharie Valleys, hence the name ‘Indian Ladder’ Trail. Along the hike, you can see waterfalls (if it’s not too dry a season), marine fossils, small caves, and stand near the crowns of mature trees growing below the escarpment. Best of all are the views from the Indian Ladder Trail, and the Escarpment Trail above, of surrounding valleys, the urban landscape, and further in the distance, the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Green Mountains of Vermont.
Nick’s favorite hikes at Minnewaska State Park Preserve in the Hudson Valley include the Lake Minnewaska Carriage Road, a two-mile gentle loop trail around the glacially formed Lake Minnewaska. It’s an historic carriage road left over from a Victorian Era mountain resort. This hike features many views of Lake Minnewaska, a peak at the Catskill Mountains from several spots, and views of the greater Hudson Valley. This hike is popular due to the lake (people love water!), the ease of access, and the rock perches and cliffs that overlook the lake and Hudson Valley.
Nick’s other favorite hike is Gertrude’s Nose Trail, an approximately seven mile hike on a mixture of historic carriage roads and footpaths traversing some of the most rugged terrain in Minnewaska State Park Preserve. These footpaths are loaded with evidence (signs) of the last glacial event, featuring glacial polish, glacial erratics (large rocks deposited by glaciers), chatter marks (any of a series of grooves, pits, and scratches on the surface of a rock, usually made by the movement of a glacier(from Dictionary.com)), sharp cliffs and massive talus blocks (rock debris below a cliff face). This hike is very popular mainly because this cliff edge trail gives panoramic views of the Shawangunk Mountains along the way.
Tom’s favorites: Green Lake and Round Lake Trails, located in Green Lakes State Park, are favorite hikes near Syracuse. They follow around the shores of these two glacial meromictic lakes. Meromictic lakes are lakes where there is no mixing of surface and bottom waters and they remain thermally (temperature) and chemically stratified (in layers) throughout the year. Other unique features of the lakes include their brilliant blue green appearance and the presence of “thrombolitic microbiolite marl reefs.” This basically means that a living organism is creating a rock out of material in the water. More specifically a cyanobacteria or algae is taking calcium compounds that entered the lake with groundwater seeping through the surrounding limestone bedrock and making it into a solid as part of cellular respiration. The United States Department of Interior designated Round Lake as a National Natural Landmark in 1975.
Green and Round Lake Trails are generally flat, 8-10 feet wide, and easy hiking trails. The full loop, including both trails, is approximately three miles long with benches located periodically for resting and enjoying the scenery. A swimming beach, playground and boat rentals are located at the north end of Green Lake. These trails are part of a 17-mile trail system in the park that also takes you through or to old growth forest, wetlands, grassland bird habitat, cliff edge overlooks, camping areas, a golf course, and connects to the 36-mile Old Erie Canal State Historic Park.
Nicole’s favorite: As the largest State Park in the Long Island region, hiking at Connetquot River State Park Preserve can feel secluded even in the middle of densely populated Long Island. The beautiful scenery and diversity of life within the park make it her favorite hiking spot. Starting from the parking lot, the Greenbelt Trail (indicated by the white and yellow blazes) takes you directly to the fish hatchery, where you can get up close and personal with trout being raised. From there, the Red Trail can take you back along the Connetquot River to Main Pond. The Red Trail merges with the Blue Trail at the pond and the hike ends at the historic Grist Mill and Main House. Then it’s a short distance down the road back to the parking lot. This loop is a little over two miles but flat and even throughout, making it perfect for all age groups. Don’t forget to check in with the Nature Center at the Main House on the way out to find out about all of the amazing programs they have there.
Molly recommends hiking at Wellesley Island State Park in the Thousand Islands Region. A favorite is to start at the Minna Anthony Common Nature Center and hike along the Eel Bay Trail (1.1 miles) to the Narrows Trail (0.45 miles). From there you can head back the same way or follow along another trail to loop back to the Nature Center. Sitting on the exposed granite outcroppings and watching the St. Lawrence River Eel Bay and passing glacial potholes are highlights of this hike. The Narrows is a narrow water passageway located between Wellesley Island and Murray Isle connecting South and Eel Bays. Along the Narrows Trail you can watch boats pass through the channel and see a variety of birds while picnicking on an open rock area. These trails are generally easy hiking but have some steeper rock climbing areas. Don’t forget to check out the Nature Center!
FORCES stewards Nick and Adriana recommend two hikes in the Finger Lakes Region.
Buttermilk Falls State Park is a located in the heart of the Finger Lakes to the south of Cayuga Lake and has much to offer avid hikers, families, and visitors to the area. Hike the Rim and Gorge Trails together for a 1.5-mile loop, or hike each separately. Starting either trail from the lower parking lot will require a strenuous uphill walk (Rim Trail) or climbing of a long staircase (Gorge Trail). The Gorge Trail has much to offer and you will encounter many waterfalls, and beautiful rock formations along the 0.65 mile trek up the gorge. Mosses, liverworts, and ferns coat entirety of the gorge, providing a vivid green walk that is topped by a hemlock hardwood forest along the ridge. As you come out of the gorge, you will cross a bridge to take the 0.82-mile Rim Trail back to the parking area. This walk takes you through a beautiful hemlock hardwood forest filled with eastern hemlock, chestnut oak, and witch hazel, along with many other species. This loop can be done in about an hour, but more time may be needed for taking in all the sights along the way. Hiking these two trails as a loop is a relatively easy hike after you complete the initial stairs, or uphill climb.
The Upper Loop in Robert H. Treman State Park is a one mile round trip on sections of the Gorge and Rim Trails. The trail is situated above Treman Gorge and offers spectacular views of the many waterfalls including the 115-foot Lucifer Falls. The trail begins at the upper section of the park (the Old Mill Parking area) at the entrance to the Gorge Trail and takes visitors through the upper gorge. The trail highlights the scenic beauty of the gorge, amazing rock formations, stone bridges, and the many water features along Enfield Creek through the ravine. The trail takes you to the top of Lucifer Falls and then down the side. At the bottom is a wooden bridge over the stream that will take you to the Rim Trail and the second portion of the hike. This begins with a climb up the “Cliff Staircase” – it is the most difficult section of the loop but it also offers some of the best views in the park. At the top is an overlook of Lucifer Falls and then a moderate downhill slope back to the upper parking lot. Multiple overlooks from high vantage points make the trail perfect for photo ops and for viewing the gorge below. Although the hike is short, some visitors may find to be strenuous due to the elevation change and the many staircases.
This weekend, try one of these hikes or find your own ‘best-loved hike’ in a park near you.
Fourth of July weekend is a great weekend to spend in a State Park or Historic Site. You can build sand castles at Hither Hills State Park to camp on the banks of Lake Erie at Evangola State Park, fish in the St. Lawrence River at Wellesley Island State Park, listen to a reading of the Declaration of Independence at Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site, take a hike, enjoy the forest and more. Find out all that State Parks has to offer this weekend at nysparks.com.
Maps are everywhere today, but did you know that cartography, or the art of map-making, has existed in various forms since the dawn of humanity? The earliest known map was discovered in Turkey in 1963. It is a wall painting showing the layout of a village and two erupting volcanoes dating from approximately 6200 BCE; the map closely matches the ruins found in the nearby valley.
Map of gold mines in the New Kingdom of Egypt, ca 1160 BCE. These maps, drawn on papyrus show the location of gold mines and rock quarries. Annotation in hieratic, the common language, indicate the meaning of colors and symbols such as mountains, roads and rivers. This map is also considered one of the oldest geologic maps as the coloration matches the types of rocks found in the area. Source: http://www.wikipedia.org
Many early traditions passed knowledge on through story or movement, similar to how we give directions today, “turn left at the store and you’ll see my house behind the pine tree.” India has a rich history of such ‘verbal cartography’. The epic, the Mahabharata, details the surrounding landscape using text rather than drawings. An excerpt from the Mahabharata describes King Bharata’s kingdom, “There are seven Main Mountains…but thousands more mountains are recognized in their general vicinity…Then, there are other hills less well-known…the population drinks from many rivers: the great Ganges, the Indus and the Sarasvati.”
Ephemeral, or temporary, maps, made by drawing on the ground, are found around the world. Imagine the person you are giving directions to is confused, so you draw the store, the road, your house and the pine tree. In 1817, the Russian explorer Otto von Kotzebue visited the Marshall Islands. There, a local navigator laid out the location of all known islands in the chain using pieces of coral. By recreating this map for navigators on other islands, von Kotzebue was able to create a nearly complete map of the Marshall Islands. Pacific Islanders were well known for their ability to create mental maps. Sailors would memorize island locations in relation to the stars and sail for days at a time without a physical map.
Native Americans frequently made maps on birch bark. During the Revolutionary War, Benedict Arnold found one such map near the British garrison at Quebec. It was inserted into a split stick and pointing toward the western stream in a fork. When opened, the map included the streams, hunting camps, and a line showing a direction of travel.
During the age of European exploration, many traditional forms of mapping were replaced by the western method: using latitude and longitude to plot features on a grid. By the 1850s, mapping practices had become uniform across Europe and Asia. These methods eventually spread around the world. Today, most maps are created on computers, using Geographic Information Systems, or GIS. While maps may be easier to produce, they still require the careful eye of a cartographer to make sure they are easy to use and read.
Maps are everywhere now: on our phones, in our cars, on the trail. On-line versions can give us directions, link us to photos or restaurants, and even show us nearby parks to visit. There are over 90 State Park maps available for download to Android and iOS Apple mobile devices through Avenza.
Given the long history of cartography, it is exciting to think about what the future holds for mapping.
Post by Maddy Gold, former Student Conservation Association member
Source: Harley, J. B., and David Woodward, eds. The History of Cartography. Vol. 1-3. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1987-2007. Web. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/HOC/index.html.